Abu ali alhusayn ibn sina is better known in europe by the latinized name. Ibn sinas natural philosophy stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. He wrote commentaries on plato and aristotle and defended philosophical study of religion against theologians such as alghazali, who had attacked muslim philosophers avicenna and alfarabi. His commentaries on the works of aristotle often corrected the philosopher, encouraging a lively debate in the spirit of ijtihad a term used in islamic law describing independent interpretation of the sources. Avicenna complied, and thus was born the first philosophical summa treating in a systematic and consistent fashion within the covers of a single book all the branches of logic and theoretical philosophy as classified in the aristotelian tradition. Avicenna was taught some extent of philosophy books such as introduction s porphyry philosopher, euclids elements, ptolemys almagest by an unpopular philosopher, abu abdullah nateli, who claimed philosophizing. His commentaries on the works of aristotle often corrected the philosopher, encouraging a lively debate in the spirit of ijtihad a term used in islamic. Ali ibn sina, in latin he is know as avicenna and his most famous works are those on philosophy and medicine. The compiler has included the latin, persian and arabic names of the drugs along with artistic renderings of the drugs as illustrations as well as avicenna s tables or grid for each entry that describes the individual, specific qualities of simple. The best books on philosophy in the islamic world five books.
He is not quoting avicenna in an exact way, so he may not have had avicennas books of the shifa, the healing, at hand. Avicenna is the greatest philosopher of the islamic world. I will simply express my strong belief, that that point of selfeducation which consists in teaching the mind to resist its desires and inclinations, until they are proved to be right, is the most important of all, not only in things of natural philosophy, but in every department of daily life. Avicenna avisen, arabic ibn sina, 9801037, islamic philosopher and physician, of persian origin, b. Avicennism is a school in islamic philosophy which was established by avicenna. The author also describes six basic rules for experimenting with new substances, which he based off of galens work greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the roman empire. Averroes ibn rushd, influential islamic religious philosopher who integrated islamic traditions with ancient greek thought. His work was to have a significant impact on thomas aquinas, among others, who explicitly and frequently drew upon the ideas. Sufficientia is a scientific and philosophical encyclopedia written by abu ali ibn sina avicenna from medieval persia, near bukhara in maverounnahr. He was the most renowned philosopher of medieval islam and the most influential name in medicine from 1100 to 1500. His contributions to the fields of logic, natural science, psychology, metaphysics and theology and even medicine are difficult to overstate. The papers gathered in this volume represent in part the proceedings of the second annual avicenna study group symposium held during the first world congress for middle eastern studies university of mainz, 12 september 2002.
He is considered by many to be the father of modern medicine. In the islamic sciences ulum, he wrote a series of short commentaries on selected quranic verses and chapters that reveal a trained philosophers hermeneutical method and attempt to come to. He wrote several books on philosophy, the most significant was kitab al shifa the book of healing. Avicenna taught some extent of philosophy books such as introduction s porphyry philosopher, euclids elements, ptolemys almagest by an unpopular philosopher, abu abdullah nateli, who claimed philosophizing. Youve already mentioned that there is a flow from the translation of greek philosophy into philosophy in the islamic world. Ibn rushds natural philosophy stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Second, avicennas natural philosophy lays the foundations for a full. Thus the present study, after an overview of medieval physics generally, turns to avicenna s account of the nature of body followed by his account of motion. He wrote commentaries on plato and aristotle and defended philosophical study of religion against theologians such as alghazali, who. In book 2, materia medica, avicenna lists 800 therapeutic natural substances from vegetal, animal, or mineral sources. He is the author of several books, including the arabic plotinus 2002 and great medieval thinkers. He developed his philosophy throughout the course of his life after being deeply moved and concerned by the metaphysics of aristotle and studying it for over a year. With a translation of the book of the prophet muhammads ascent to heavenhardback 1992 edition by avicenna peter heath author avicenna by lenn e.
The summaries of avicennas books are clear magnificently clear, if i may say so. Also called the cure it is intended to cure or heal ignorance of the soul. In his paper on avicennas natural philosophy jon mcginnis deals with a complex of interrelated issues, some drawn from aristotle and others from kalam or islamic theology. According to henry corbin and seyyed hossein nasr, there are two kind of avicennism. Ibn sinas natural philosophy stanford encyclopedia of. Avicenna, by the way, was a persian who wrote in arabic. The first book contains four treatises, the first of which examines the four elements earth, air, fire, and water in light of greek physician galen of pergamums four. In medicine, his great work, alqanun the canon, was translated into latin towards the end of the twelfth. Avicenna, aka abu ali alhusain ibn abdallah ibn sina, was a persian polymath, physician, philosopher, and scientist who wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. The first is the detailed study of the contents of all important medical works which has written after avicenna, to show the rate of his impact and adaptation of physicians and authors of medical. The author of more than 200 books on medicine and philosophy, avicenna followed and further expanded on the tradition of western philosophy and medicine introduced by aristotle, hippocrates and galen. His most famous works are the book of healing a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopedia and the canon of medicine a standard medical text at many islamic and european universities up until the early 19th century. He is the author of the forthcoming avicennas metaphysics in context. More than 200 extant works have been attributed to him.
Apart from philosophy, avicennas other contributions lie in the fields of medicine, the natural sciences, musical theory, and mathematics. Avicenna, aware of inconsistencies or difficulties in aristotle, tried to resolve some of them. Ibn sina and abu rayhan albiruni engaged in a written debate, with albiruni mostly criticizing aristotelian natural philosophy and the peripatetic school, while avicenna and his student ahmad ibn ali almasumi respond to albirunis criticisms in writing. At the time of avicenna natural philosophy and medicine overlapped, sharing a. Author allegory and philosophy in avicenna ibn sain. Experimentation in avicennas philosophy by referring to its practical application in his works on natural sciences. Ubayd aljuzjani, his autobiography, reaching till the time in his middle years when they first met. A classic guide to the medicine of avicenna by hakim g. The elements of avicennas physics greek sources and arabic. Avicennas penchant for categorizing becomes immediately evident in the canon, which is divided into five books. In outline, averroes solution is to maintain that natural philosophy, at each level and.
A 1,000yearold text at the foundation of modern medicine and biology. Avicenna has 153 books on goodreads with 14766 ratings. At some point in his later years, avicenna wrote for or dictated to his student, companion, and amanuensis, abu. Once the discussion of methodology is complete in chapter 2, mcginnis takes up avicennas natural philosophy. Many of his woorks concentrated on philosophy and medicine. His logical works are presented in several treatises. Islamic or iranian avicennism, and latin avicennism. But then, ive lived in iran and have a natural interest in the place. Some of them are commentaries on aristotles organon, and are presented in alshifa almantiq, the. Book of the cure, a vast philosophical and scientific. Ibn sina 9801037, known as avicenna in latin, played a considerable role in the development of both eastern and western philosophy and science. His philosophical views have engaged the attention of western thinkers over several centuries, and his books have been among the most important sources in philosophy. Avicenna project gutenberg selfpublishing ebooks read. The cure, or the healing in its entirety deserves to be considered ibn sinas masterpiece in philosophy, the same can be said in particular of its metaphysical section ilahiyyat, divine things.
His logic, natural philosophy, and metaphysics are still taught in the islamic world as. It is claimed that ibn sina had written about 450 works, of which 240 had survived. In the islamic sciences ulum, he wrote a series of short commentaries on selected qur anic verses and chapters that reveal a trained philosopher s hermeneutical method and attempt to come to terms with. Avicennas most influential works were kitab alshifa.
Avicenna wrote extensively on early islamic philosophy, including two treatises named logic and metaphysics. He also published one of the most important books on avicenna, who we will be getting onto soon. Islamic philosophy is a realistic philosophy, based on principles similar to those of aristotles philosophy. His immense impact on christian and jewish medieval thought, as well as on the subsequent islamic tradition, is charted in this volume alongside studies which provide a comprehensive introduction to and analysis of his philosophy. Avicenna lists 800 tested natural pharmaceuticals including plant, animal and mineral substances. The book of knowledge was the basis of alghazalis later arabic work maqasid alfalasifa goals of. Historians of philosophy and the natural sciences as well as. The two mainstreams of islamic philosophy are avicennas avicenian philosophy and sadras sadrian philosophy. I will suggest that in this context avicenna is not the sole, or most. Apart from philosophy, avicenna s other contributions lie in the fields of medicine, the natural sciences, musical theory, and mathematics. Avicennism is a school of islamic philosophy which was established by avicenna. His contributions to the fields of logic, natural science, psychology, metaphysics, theology, and even medicine were vast. Avicenna ibn sina internet encyclopedia of philosophy.
Avicennas most famous works are those on philosophy and medicine. Whether avicennas new argument is successful became a matter of intense debate in postclassical islamic natural philosophy, with such notables as abu lbarakat albaghdadi 10801165 and najm aldin alkatibi alqazwini ca. List of books and articles about avicenna ibn sina online. Avicennas physics is the very first volume that he wrote when he began his monumental encyclopedia of science and philosophy, thehealing. A good companion to this book might be the closing of the muslim mind. The philosophy of ibn sina is essentially aristotelian, like other arab philosophers. Avicennas ideas and arguments about mind and brain interaction. What can avicenna teach us about the mindbody problem. Avicenna, muslim physician, the most famous and influential of the.
The compiler has included the latin, persian and arabic names of the drugs along with artistic renderings of the drugs as illustrations as well as avicennas tables or grid for each entry that describes the individual, specific qualities of simple. Jul 04, 20 avicenna is the greatest philosopher of the islamic world. They concern the form of motion as well as the continuum. But i thought if i can only choose five books, i shouldnt choose two by one person. Islamic doctor and philosopher, was born at afshena in the district of bukhara. Book of the cure, or the cure, an encyclopaedic exposition of logic, physics, mathematics, and metaphysics, and alqanun fi al. The first book contains four treatises, the first of which examines the four elements earth, air, fire, and water in light of greek physician galen of pergamums four humours blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile.
Ibn sina avicenna in latin 9801037 played a considerable role in the development of both eastern and western philosophy and science. Avicenna was taught some extent of philosophy books such as introduction isagoges porphyry philosopher. This book is ibn sinas major work on science and philosophy. As others before him, avicenna understands natural philosophy as the study of body insofar as it is subject to motion. Natural philosophy became the great mother of the sciences, which by the nineteenth century had nourished the manifold chemical, physical, and biological sciences to maturity, thus enabling them to leave the great mother and emerge as the multiplicity of independent sciences we know today. Ibn sina avicenna stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. This is one of the best philosophy books in the history of medical practice, and forms the foundation of our current understanding of human health and disease. Already in book 1 of the canon composed before 4051015, when he was. Robert wisnovsky is assistant professor of islamic intellectual history at harvard university, where he teaches islamic philosophy and theology and classical arabic. Their cosmology was a unity of natural, supernatural, and preternatural realms. In order to achieve the objective of the article, i. While the primary focus of this chapter is avicennas explanation of motion, it unveils avicennas views on time, the nonexistence of a void, his rejection of atomism, his explanation of substantial change, and his theory of dynamics or as he calls them inclinations. Browse the amazon editors picks for the best books of 2019, featuring our. Jan 15, 2006 but then, ive lived in iran and have a natural interest in the place.36 526 1163 416 765 495 191 641 996 888 504 132 897 63 510 133 1513 1471 367 873 105 1033 854 725 514 300 179 603 431 1169 1310 1413 397 242 733 1080 232 830 1191 526 1000 1226 513 1241